Diamondback terrapins may not be removed from the wild. Diamondback terrapins may not be possessed without a permit. No eggs may be taken from the wild or transported. Beginning in March 2023, all recreational blue crab traps will be required to have a rigid funnel opening no larger than 2 x 6 inches at the narrowest point, or a 2 x 6-inch bycatch reduction device.
Diamondback terrapins are medium-sized turtles that can be found in brackish water habitats throughout Florida. Five subspecies occur in Florida: Carolina (M. t. centrata), Florida east coast (M. t. tequesta), mangrove (M. t. rhizophorarum), ornate (M. t. macrospilota) and Mississippi (M. t. pileata). Three of these subspecies are endemic to Florida, meaning they can’t be found anywhere else in the world.
Measuring at about 9.4 inches long, female diamondback terrapins are typically larger than males, which measure about 5.5 inches in length. Diamondback terrapins can usually be distinguished by the pattern on their shell, which consists of concentric rings and a “diamond-like” pattern with knobs along their backs. The shell is often multi-colored with outer rings being lighter than inner rings. In some cases, the shell is completely dark. The plastron, or underside of the shell, can be yellow or orange, though it is sometimes all black. Their skin is often grey to pale white with black spots or bars. Some individuals may lack markings, or may have a pink hue around the cheeks.
Diamondback terrapins are active during daylight hours for most of the year. Within brackish water habitats, terrapins may be found basking in open or densely vegetated areas, submerged in muddy substrates, foraging on land or water and hiding under vegetation to protect themselves from predators or the elements. In Florida, males reach maturity between two and three years of age and females reach maturity between four and five years of age. Terrapins have been known to live for up to 40 years in captivity, and scientists estimate that they typically live for about 25 years in the wild.
In Florida, courtship occurs in the spring, between March and May. Nesting usually takes place during the day in sparsely vegetative sandy areas above the high tide line. Nesting season occurs from April through July, but may be extended depending on the area. Females can lay two or three times per year, with clutch size ranging from five to ten eggs.
Diamondback terrapins eat a variety of foods including snails, crabs, clams, mussels, worms, fish and plants.
Diamondback terrapins live in brackish water habitats state-wide, including salt marshes, barrier islands, mangrove swamps, tidal creeks and rivers. Little is known about terrapin habitat use during the winter, but in cold weather terrapins may become less active and bury themselves in the muddy substrate under water, beneath undercut banks or in soft sand or mud on banks of rivers, creeks or marshes.
Diamondback terrapins face a variety of threats, including:
- Habitat loss: Climate change and other habitat loss and conversion are the drivers behind most threats for diamondback terrapins. Loss of important nesting and foraging habitat are a major concern for population stability.
- Predation: Predators such as wild hogs, raccoons and rats prey on terrapins at all life stages, although eggs and young terrapins are most vulnerable to predation.
- Road mortality: Females often crossroads in search of suitable nesting areas and can be struck by cars. The loss of mature females may have large impacts on populations of terrapins.
- Boat strikes: Accidental collision with boats can injure and kill terrapins.
- Crab traps: Accidental drownings in blue crab traps occurs when adults enter the traps in search of food and cannot escape.
- Harvest for the pet trade: Due to their colorful appearance and friendly disposition, terrapins are susceptible to unsustainable wild take for the pet trade. Because of this threat, diamondback terrapins are listed as a CITES Appendix II species which means that unless trade is closely controlled the species may become threatened with extinction.
How you can help
Be sure to watch out for terrapins as you drive along the coast in the spring and summer. If you see a terrapin in the road, and if you are safe from oncoming traffic, you may move the turtle across the road in the direction it was heading.
If you come across an injured diamondback terrapin, contact your FWC Regional Office to find a list of rehabbers in your area. If you suspect that someone is illegally capturing or selling wild diamondback terrapins please contact FWC Wildlife Alert.