Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium, FE) is a subspecies of white-tailed deer. These small deer are found from Big Pine Key to Sugarloaf Key in the Lower Florida Keys and utilize all habitat types on these islands. Key deer have high saltwater tolerance, low birth rates, and solitary habits. They breed in fall and winter and exhibit behavior typical of other white-tailed deer. Fawns are generally born between April and June.
The Lower Keys marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris hefneri, FE) is the smallest subspecies of marsh rabbits found from Big Pine Key to Boca Chica Key. They inhabit higher elevation levels surrounding fresh and salt water marshes. Breeding is most productive between December and June but can occur year-round. They nest in thickets or logs on the ground made of grass and fur.
The greatest threat to these species are habitat destruction, fragmentation, and disease. Development has removed suitable habitat from these species and further isolated the already fragmented populations. Other causes of destruction include natural disasters and sea level rise.
The Florida Keys mole skink (Plestiodon egregius egregius, ST) is a slender brownish lizard with a reddish-brown tail. Occurrences have been recorded at Key West, Stock Island, East Rockland Key, Middle Torch Key, Big Pine Key, Bahia Honda, West Summerland Key, Saddlebunch Key, Dry Tortugas, Key Vaca, Boot Key, Grassy Key, Key Largo, Indian Key, Long Key, Plantation Key, and Upper Matecumbe Key; however, they are likely to occur elsewhere in the Keys where there is undeveloped shoreline. They inhabit sandy shorelines, usually under rocks, leaf litter, driftwood, or tidal wrack. They have also been found in pine rockland hammocks in the Upper Keys.
Key Largo woodrats (Neotoma floridana smalli, FE) are rodents found in the tropical hammocks of north Key Largo. They are brown and black with reddish-brown sides and a short, bi-colored tail. Woodrats create large stick nests at the base of trees or rocks, or they may use solution holes in the root systems of large trees. They can breed year-round but are most productive in winter months. Their primary threat is habitat loss due to development.
The Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola, FE) inhabits tropical hammocks in Key Largo. They are characterized by a dark hazel back with reddish brown sides, white belly and feet, and a bi-colored tail. Their nests are lined with leaves in logs, tree hollows, or rock crevices. Development has removed much of their available habitat and continues to be an on-going threat for this species.
The Stock Island tree snail (Orthalicus reses, FT) has a thin, white to brown shell with three brownish-purple horizontal stripes and many vertical stripes. It is native to Stock Island and Key West but went extinct in these areas in 1992. Small populations remain in introduced areas outside its historic range, most notably in No Name Key and Key Largo. They inhabit tropical hardwood hammocks and prefer poisonwood, pigeon plum, Jamaican dogwood, strangler fig, and gumbo limbo trees. Habitat loss, sea level rise, and the New Guinea flatworm are major threats to this species.
The Key silverside (Menidia conchorum, ST) is endemic to the Lower and Middle Florida Keys. They inhabit protected saline lagoons and are tolerable of a wide range of salinities. Habitat loss and alteration are its primary threats.
The Key ringneck snake (Diadophis punctatus acricus, ST) has a grayish-brown head with a faint neck ring and a bright red, orange, or yellow underside. They have been found in Key West, Big Pine, Little Torch, Middle Torch, and No Name keys, but may occur elsewhere where pine rocklands occur.
- Species Action Plan: Key Ringneck Snake (FWC)
- Species Conservation Measures and Permitting Guidelines: King Ringneck Snake (FWC)
- Recovery Plan: Key Largo Woodrat (USFWS)
- Recovery Plan: Key Largo Cotton Mouse (USFWS)
- Survey Protocol for the Key Largo Woodrat and Key Largo Cotton Mouse (USFWS)
- Key Deer Conservation Guidelines (USFWS)
- Recovery Plan: Key Deer (USFWS)
- Lower Keys Rabbit Conservation Guidelines (USFWS)
- Recovery Plan: Marsh Rabbit (USFWS)