Local governments can play an important role and encourage the implementation of environmentally sensitive and wildlife-friendly development practices. Governments use comprehensive plans and land development regulations to shape the local development landscape and to designate ecologically important areas with associated development guidelines. Natural resource managers and biologists can assist planners during the development approval and comprehensive plan approval processes by identifying areas of important habitat for fish and wildlife. This is especially important during the drafting of any local comprehensive plan’s conservation element as required under Chapter 163 Part II, F.S. or in the preparation of Evaluation and Appraisal Reports. Additionally, local ordinances and community bylaws can play a major role in minimizing human-wildlife conflicts. Ordinances can be crafted in a way as to only apply to areas with frequent human-wildlife conflicts rather than applying the ordinance county or city-wide. Example ordinances can be found in the resources below.
- Policies that Address Sustainable Site Development (UF/IFAS) - Compiled and summarized city and county ordinances that provide incentives or regulations to promote sustainable development.
- Comprehensive Planning Evaluation and Plan Update (Alachua County) – A website chronicling the process and decisions for the Alachua County 2011 - 2030 comprehensive plan.
- Standards for Open Space Subdivision Design (Brevard County) – An example open-space ordinance that was established to encourage cluster development and efficient use of land to protect ecological functions of natural areas and reduce development expenses and maintenance costs. The ordinance also defines open space to density bonus ratio which are offered to developers constructing within certain zoning categories.
- Conservation and Open Space Element (Martin County) – An example Comprehensive Plan Conservation and Open Space Element that aims to protect at least 25% of existing upland native habitats within all developments. It also outlines the requirement of management plans for the protection of wetlands on and off site of a proposed development.
- Ecological Corridors Ordinance (Pasco County) – An example ordinance intended to protect areas that connect core conservation tracts and maintain and conserve natural resources at a regional scale.
- Walton County Conservation Element – An example Comprehensive Plan Conservation Element which requires that 25-50% of environmentally sensitive habitats be protected onsite and incorporates a density bonus program which helps to incentivize developers to enhance or restore natural areas.
- No Feeding Ordinance Research (The Conservation Agency) – An example of a food-removal experiment that reduced the amount of coyote traffic in areas where no-feeding ordinances were adopted.
- Example Bear Ordinances, Bylaws, and Penalty Schedules (FWC) – A page with example language of Ordinances and Bylaws which can be incorporated into communities to reduce or prevent activities that lead to human-wildlife conflicts.
According to projections produced by the Florida Bureau of Economic and Business Research Florida’s population is projected to reach 33.7 million residents by 2070, 14.9 million more people than in 2010. The projected new residential and commercial development that will be necessary to serve this population could convert five million more acres, including 2 million acres of Florida’s agricultural and natural lands, to urban use. In many instances, urban sprawl and associated regional roadways are the leading causes of habitat loss, degradation, and fragmentation. However, more developers are creating conservation design plans and wildlife-friendly communities which incorporate existing natural resource features and build only in previously degraded areas.
Developers, planners, and local governments can incorporate existing natural resource features into long-range planning efforts, site design, and development to avoid or minimize impacts to native habitats and wildlife. Resources exist for landowners in Florida who are interested in pursuing a more wildlife-friendly approach to land development and conversion. In addition, certain design features can be followed to minimize impacts to fish and wildlife resources, and these will be discussed in the following sections.
- Conservation Subdivision Design (UF/IFAS) – A series of publications that explore topics such as wildlife-friendly lighting, stormwater treatment, native landscaping, and designing open spaces.
- Wildlife-Friendly Development Certification (North Carolina Wildlife Federation) – A program which addresses extensive criteria to ensure that measures are taken to conserve wildlife habitats during all phases of development.
- Building for Birds Evaluation Tool (UF/IFAS) – guidance on an online tool which provides decision makers with a way to evaluate different development scenarios and how they affect habitat for different species of forest birds that use fragmented areas.
- Garden for Wildlife (National Wildlife Federation) – webpage which includes diverse information to help citizens restore habitat and wildlife populations in our cities, towns, and neighborhoods.
- Wildlife-Friendly Lighting – webpage about the cooperative effort between FWC and USFWS designed to educate members of the public, the construction industry, and government officials about how to minimize adverse impacts to wildlife by using proper lighting methods
- Wildlife-Friendly Yards – University of Florida’s Department of Environmental Horticulture established the Florida Friendly Landscaping™ Program which includes methods for attracting wildlife to residential areas.
- Living Shorelines: Natural Protection of Florida’s Coasts (FDEP) – webpage on living shorelines and the benefits to using them in shoreline stabilization projects.
- Conservation Planning Guidelines (Environmental Law Institute) – resource provided by the Environmental Law Institute that provides a framework for planners wishing to avoid habitat fragmentation and design for onsite conservation.
- Best Management Practices for Florida Golf Courses (FDEP) – strategies for operating a golf course in an environmentally sound manner.
- Golf Course Environmental Profile (Golf Course Superintendents Association of America) – project focused on developing a comprehensive environmental profile of golf courses in the United States.
Riparian buffers are vegetated areas between development and rivers, streams, and wetlands to preserve water quality, reduce erosion and sedimentation, limit stormwater discharge, and provide wildlife habitat. Often in development planning, these buffer zones are only planned for the protection of water quality as required by a local government or state water management district. However, buffers that protect water quality may not be sufficient in size to protect wetland-dependent wildlife species. When planning for wetland buffers, considerations may need to be made for wetland-dependent wildlife and aquatic species home ranges and movement patterns.
Upland wildlife species also benefit from buffers between development and their nests, burrows, and other important habitats. In some instances, the incorporation of these buffers is required by law to prevent the “take” of listed species and must be maintained to receive a development permit.
- Planners Guide to Wetland Buffers for Local Governments (Environmental Law Institute) – a guide that identifies current practices in the protection of wetland buffers by local governments, and provides information needed to manage land use and development in these areas.
- Creating Effective Local Riparian Buffer Ordinances (University of Georgia) – resource for those considering establishing or improving riparian buffer ordinances, including planning, implementation, and enforcement.
- Buffers: An Efficient Tool for Watershed Protection (USFWS) – A document describing the recommended buffer distance for protecting water resources and vulnerable species based on several studies.
- Riparian Buffer Width, Vegetative Cover, and Nitrogen Removal Effectiveness (EPA) – research focused on the effectiveness of riparian buffers to improve water quality by removing access nitrogen from surface and ground waters.
- Silviculture Best Management Practices (FFS) – protection of water resources from degradation and sedimentation that may result from forest operations.
- Conservation Measures and Permitting Guidelines (FWC) - provide detailed and concise information regarding recommended buffers for state-threatened species.
Greenways are naturalized corridors that can be used for conservation or recreation, whereas trails and paths intended largely for human recreation or transportation. Incorporating recreational opportunities such as interpretive signs or wildlife viewing sites into greenways and trails can help citizens understand the attributes of natural areas which can in turn strengthen the overall awareness of the environment in a community. Recreation in natural areas can negatively impact wildlife habitat and behavior, however, by following design guidelines detailed in resources below, trails, greenways, and recreational uses can be compatible with wildlife use.
- Office of Greenways and Trails (FDEP) – the office within the FDEP’s Division of Recreation and Parks which supports communities through coordination and technical assistance regarding the acquisition, development, designation, and management of greenways and trails.
- Ecological Corridors Minimal Standards and Design (Pasco County) – An example guide to protecting areas identified which connect core conservation tracts and maintain and conserve natural resources at a regional scale.
- Enhancing the Environment with Trails and Greenways (Trails and Greenways Clearinghouse) – informational document about the variety of environmental benefits associated with trails and greenways which provides some specific Florida examples.
- Trail Design with Wildlife in Mind (Colorado State Parks) – handbook for trail planners developed by a task force to help decrease short and long-term wildlife impacts when constructing trails.
- The Impacts of Greenways on Property Values (Journal of Leisure Research) – scholarly article which uses hedonic pricing methods to examine the impact of greenways on proximate properties’ sales prices.
The management of stormwater runoff is an important component of site design. Stormwater management systems assist in the minimization of development impacts through the reduction of pollutants and sedimentation. Because they concentrate water, stormwater management systems often naturally attract wildlife but lack substantial habitat resources. Wildlife use of stormwater systems can cause dangerous situations near airports and roadways which should be considered during design. In appropriate locations, stormwater facilities can be enhanced to benefit wildlife. Specific site guidance should be obtained from a qualified biologist, engineer, and landscape architect. If designed and maintained properly, these areas can be important resources for aquatic and wetland species. Using complex configurations with peninsulas and islands can be beneficial for nesting wading birds and other wildlife.
- Stormwater Systems and How They Work (SJRWMD) – defines the primary types of stormwater management systems used in Florida and provides guidance on plant selection for aquascaping.
- The Florida Yards and Neighborhoods Handbook – A Florida-Friendly LandscapingTM Publication which provides guidance on enhancing stormwater ponds and canals.
- Florida-Friendly Plants for Stormwater Pond Shorelines (UF/IFAS) – A document to assist with the challenge of selecting aquatic and shoreline plants for stormwater ponds.
- Strategies to Encourage Adoption of Stormwater BMPs by Homeowners (UF/IFAS) – A document which highlights valuable strategies for informing residents on how to reduce nonpoint source pollution in their landscapes. These actions can lead to improved life span of man-made stormwater systems while preserving their ecosystem services and aesthetic benefits.
- Stormwater Management Academy (University of Central Florida) – a webpage with materials and research publications to assist in the understanding and design of stormwater management issues in Florida.
- Stormwater Inspector Training and Certification Program (FDEP) – educates professionals on stormwater and erosion control BMPs.
Florida has countless natural and constructed ponds, many of which are present on private property and do not play the primary role of stormwater management. They can provide amenities to a site including swimming, fishing, waterfowl hunting, and wildlife viewing opportunities. Ponds can be managed intensively for high fish production while still attracting wading birds, waterfowl and other wildlife species. The availability of water, food and cover will dictate which types of wildlife are attracted to a pond. Many wildlife species add to the natural beauty and enjoyment of the pond while others may cause problems.
Onsite ponds can generate income though the landowners charging a fee for fishermen to fish in their pond. Short-term and long-term leases are common. If you own a fish pond of more than 20 acres which is located entirely within your property you may obtain a Private Fish Pond License from FWC to exempt persons fishing in your pond from the recreational freshwater fishing license requirement.
- Guidelines for Designing and Managing Florida Ponds for Recreation (FWC) – a booklet to help pond owners develop a sound program for managing a recreational waterbody for fish, waterfowl, and wildlife viewing.
- Nesting Island Creation for Wading Birds (UF/IFAS) – guidance to be used when considering creating wading bird nesting habitat.
- Fertilization of Fresh Water Fish Ponds (UF/IFAS) – a document which provides recommendations in increasing the productivity of a pond.
Temporary and permanent methods are used on development sites for erosion control, revegetation, and bank stabilization. These practices are important for preventing the impairment of natural waterbodies from sedimentation, yet certain erosion and sediment control practices can create hazards for wildlife. Erosion control products that use plastic netting can lead to the entanglement, injury and death of a variety of species including federally or state-listed reptiles and birds. Cost-competitive and wildlife-friendly alternatives are readily available, including coconut coir, straw, and jute. These alternatives are more wildlife-friendly in design because they use organic-based materials/fibers which biodegrade after accomplishing their purpose in comparison to synthetic plastics, which remain in place long after exceeding their utility.
To reduce wildlife entanglement and plastic debris resulting from erosion control and sediment stabilization, biodegradable alternatives such as jute or coir netting or loose straw can be used. This can be particularly beneficial near wetlands and natural areas with burrowing and ground wildlife. If plastic netting must be used, take steps to reduce its potential entanglement of wildlife by limiting its use to those sites most in need of erosion control, trimming loose netting during regular maintenance, and removing the netting when it is no longer needed. In addition, netting can have a loose-weave design with movable joints between the horizontal and vertical twines to allow the individual twines to move independently and wildlife to escape entanglement.
- Erosion and Sediment Control Designer and Reviewer Manual – technical manual which aids in the implementation of stormwater pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) in Florida and contains specific information regarding acceptable alternatives to erosion control practices which use plastic netting.
- Guidelines for Use of Snake-Friendly Erosion Control Blankets (NRCS) – factsheet which compares material and design alternatives for erosion and sediment control BMPs and provides recommendations for reducing wildlife impacts.
Roadways are a necessary resource for people and goods to travel across the state. Informed decision making in the design, construction, and operation of roadways large and small can be used to help protect fish and wildlife and their habitats.
- Environmental Review Toolkit Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)] – resources available to improve roadway projects to be more wildlife friendly.
- Office of Environmental Management (FDOT) – information regarding FDOT’s environmental review process for planning, creating, and maintaining roadway projects.
- Pollinators and Roadsides: Best Management Practices (FHWA) – strategies to improve roadside habitat for pollinators, including vegetation management, native plant information, and training resources.
- Transportation Planning (USFWS) – policy and guidance to facilitate in transportation planning.
- Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife: Program Overview (FHWA) – central source of information about incorporating natural environmental protection and enhancement into the transportation decision-making process.
Wildlife Crossing Design
Wildlife crossings can be an especially important design component for reducing conflicts where roads cross important fish and wildlife habitats and travel corridors. It is important to develop long-term conservation goals for wildlife crossings upon implementation. Some of the primary purposes for crossings are to: maintain habitat connectivity within natural landscape linkages bisected by roadways; avoid habitat loss and degradation; reduce wildlife roadway mortality; promote genetic connectivity for the target wildlife species; and, maintain public safety.
There are numerous wildlife crossing designs to suit both aquatic and terrestrial species movement and habitat connectivity. Structure types include wildlife underpasses such as bridges extended over wetland, floodplains and natural areas, and enlarged box culverts, and drainage pipes under roadways. Wildlife overpasses are bridges designed to connect wildlife habitat and animal paths over a roadway. Appropriately designed fencing is also needed to exclude animals from the roadway and funnel them to the crossing structure. Signs to alert people of wildlife crossings can prevent car accidents in areas of heavy animal use and near underpass structures.
- Wildlife Crossing Guidelines (FDOT) – guidelines developed for use by FDOT to evaluate the appropriateness of including wildlife crossings and associated features for proposed projects on the State Highway System or retrofit projects on the SHS
- Wildlife–vehicle Collision Reduction Study: Best Practices Manual (USDOT FHWA) – a manual developed for practitioners responsible for addressing the problem of collisions between vehicles and wildlife.
- Ecological Corridors Minimal Standards and Design (Pasco County) – a document containing language by the county government for required design standards, and typical engineering drawings, for wildlife crossings.
- Lake Jackson Culvert System Study (Florida State University) – study investigating the effectiveness of drift fences around roadways to prevent road mortality of reptiles and amphibians.
- Wildlife Crossings Toolkit (National Park Service) – information to assist in maintaining or restoring habitat connectivity across transportation infrastructure on public lands.
- Use of Highway Underpasses by Florida Panthers and Other Wildlife (UF) – effectiveness of fencing and underpasses around I-75 to allow panther movement across the road while preventing road mortalities.
- Wildlife and Roads Decision Guide – resource for mitigating the effects of roads on wildlife by constructing crossings such as overpasses, underpasses, and crosswalks.
Most large-scale utility projects are coordinated through the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or the Florida Siting Coordination Office. The initial scoping, planning, and permitting, processes may begin 5-10 years before construction begins. Coordination with FWC and USFWS at the earliest planning stage is recommended to provide the utility company information regarding fish and wildlife issues and possible avoidance measures.
- Florida Public Service Commission – exercises the regulatory authority over utilities for rate base/economic regulation, competitive market oversight, and monitoring of safety, reliability, and service.
- Summary of Warm Water Refugia Issues for Manatees (FWC) – webpage which discusses how coastal power plants with warm water discharge attract manatees and dangers to manatees particularly in colder months when they are most likely to seek warm water refuge.
- Threats to Birds (USFWS) - webpage that offers guidance and statistics about hazards to birds from utility infrastructure including from communication towers, electrical utility lines, and wind energy.
- General Overview of Regulations for Renewable Energy Facilities in Florida (FDEP) – Links to webpages and contacts for a variety of needs with permitting energy facilities.
- Making Renewable Energy Wildlife Friendly (Defenders of Wildlife) – strategies to avoid, minimize, and mitigate the impacts of renewable energy development on wildlife and important lands and natural resources.
Right-of-Way Planning (ROW)
The linear corridors often needed for transporting energy or resources for energy projects, such as transmission lines or pipelines can be hundreds of miles long and cut through numerous habitats. Once the infrastructure is in in place, a program is developed to maintain vegetation that can interfere with the utilities, usually trees that can damage powerlines. Maintenance programs for ROWs traditionally include scheduled chemical treatments and mowing, which have had significant negative impacts on wildlife. However, alternative programs can be employed to both manage vegetation and minimize impacts to wildlife.
- Right-of-Way Stewardship Council – accreditation program that establishes standards for responsible ROW vegetation management along corridors, including Integrated Vegetation Management and best management practices.
- Electric Power Rights of Way: A New Frontier for Conservation (Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies) - an article discussing initiatives by select national and international utilities to improve wildlife habitat in ROWs.
- Benefits of IVM on ROWs (EPA) – a webpage with a discussion of the economic and environmental benefits of IVM.
Natural resources mined in Florida include phosphate, limestone, dolomite, shell, heavy minerals, fuller’s earth, peat, clay, gravel, and sand. The FDEP’s Mining and Mitigation Program in the Division of Water Resource Management, is the state’s lead agency in the regulation of most mining and reclamation activities. While the Mining and Mitigation Program does not regulate borrow pits, which include sand, shell, and clay mines, these are regulated under environmental resource permitting.
All mining in Florida since 1975 has been subject to reclamation requirements. Reclamation means the reasonable rehabilitation of land where resource extraction has occurred, and reclamation construction consists of re-contouring and re-vegetating mined areas. Some issues addressed in reclamation requirements are mitigating impacts to hydrology, water quality, wetlands, and wildlife habitats. Some reclaimed areas can provide excellent wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities. The area that became Tenoroc Public Use Area was extensively surface-mined between 1950 and 1978. However, intensive management and restoration of the area has provided suitable habitat for many residential and migratory birds and provides quality public fishing.
- Chapter 62C-16 F.A.C. – Florida Administrative Code containing the reclamation standards for phosphate mining lands.
- Chapter 378 F.S. – Florida Statutes containing the languages where phosphate land and resource extraction reclamation standards are set forth
- Integrated Habitat Network (IHN) plan (FDEP) - a document which is the focus for the reclamation and permitting efforts for phosphate mining in Central Florida. The IHN provides for ecologically-based construction of wildlife corridors which are to be associated primarily with the land adjacent to major river systems and their tributaries.
- An Overview of Phosphate Mining and Reclamation in Florida (UF/IFAS) – a document which contains information about: how and why phosphate is mined in Florida; who is impacted by Florida phosphate mining; what happens to the land after mining; and what are some of the controversies of phosphate mining?
- Landscape Reclamation at a Central Florida Phosphate Mine (Ecological Engineering) – Research article on the factors influencing growth and survival of planted species.
- Wildlife Habitat and Wildlife Utilization of Phosphate-Mined Lands (Florida Institute of Phosphate Research) – an extensive report on research to identify how wildlife use reclaimed mine sites.
- Florida's Phosphate Mines (FDEP) – A suite of information regarding the 27 phosphate mines in Florida.