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Proceedings of the Xth International Conference on Harmful Algae, October 2002

Note: For bibliographic purposes, this document should be cited as follows:

Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas, and G.A. Vargo (Eds.). 2004. Harmful Algae 2002. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Institute of Oceanography, and Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA.


Introductory Material

Publication Information, Conference Credits, Table of Contents


Plenary, Ecology
Toxins and Toxicity
Detection and Analytical Techniques
Harmful Effects and Risks
Mitigation and Modeling

Special Sessions and Auxiliary Material

Special Sessions/Round Table/Panel Listing, Regional Program and Special Session Summaries, Awards, Indices

Plenary, Ecology Sessions

Attack and Defend: The Function and Evolution of Bioactive or Toxic Metabolites
Jeffrey L. C. Wright

The Potential Use of a Hydrodynamic Model in the Prediction of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Southern Benguela
G. Pitcher, P. Monteiro, and A. Kemp

Four Karenia brevis Blooms: A Comparative Analysis
Gabriel A. Vargo, Cynthia A. Heil, Danylle N. Ault, Merrie Beth Neely, Susan Murasko, Julie Havens, Kristen M. Lester, L. Kellie Dixon, Rachel Merkt, John Walsh, Robert Weisberg, and Karen A. Steidinger

Alexandrium fundyense Migration Patterns in the Bay of Fundy, Eastern Canada
Jennifer L. Martin, Fred H. Page, Michelle M. Ringuette, Alex Hanke, and Murielle M. LeGresley

Phytoplankton Assemblages During Recurrent Alexandrium minutum Blooms in a Mediterranean Harbor
Magda Vila, Esther Garcés, Mercedes Masó, and Jordi Camp

Patterns of Short-Term and Long-Term Accumulation of Phycotoxins in Zooplankton Feeding on Alexandrium fundyense
Gregory J. Teegarden, Allan D. Cembella, Robert G. Campbell, and Edward G. Durbin

The Resting Cyst of Alexandrium catenella in Thau Lagoon (Western French Mediterranean Coast)
M. Laabir, B. Génovési-Giunti, N. Barré, A. Vaquer, Y. Collos, E. Erard LeDenn, P. Cecchi, V. Pons, and B. Bibent

Correlation of Karenia brevis Presence in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico with Rainfall and Riverine Flow
L.K. Dixon and K.A. Steidinger

Isotopic Constraints on Nutrient Sources Supporting the 2001 Karenia brevis Bloom
Julie Havens, Cynthia Heil, David Hollander, Gabriel Vargo, Danylle Ault, Susan Murasko, and John Walsh

Primary Productivity of Florida Red Tides
Brian J. Bendis, Ryan J. Pigg, and David F. Millie

Bacterial and Size Fractionated Primary Production Within a Large Karenia brevis Bloom on the West Florida Shelf
Cynthia A. Heil, Margaret R. Mulholland, Deborah A. Bronk, Peter Bernhardt, and Judith M. O'Neil

Harmful Algal Blooms in the Western Gulf of Mexico: Karenia brevis Is Messin' with Texas and Mexico!
Patricia A. Tester, Kirk Wiles, Sabrina M. Varnam, Gisela Ortega, Angela M. Dubois, and Virgilio Arenas Fuentes

Effects of the Toxic Red Tide Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on Survival, Fecal Pellet Production and Fecundity of the Copepod Acartia tonsa
Christopher J. Collumb and Edward J. Buskey

Does Nitrogen Regeneration from the N2 Fixing Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. Fuel Karenia brevis Blooms in the Gulf of Mexico?
Margaret R. Mulholland, Cynthia A. Heil, Deborah A. Bronk, Judith M. O'Neil, and Peter Bernhardt

Status of Pfiesteria Science, Including Tests of Pfiesteria shumwayae Strain \CCMP2089 for Ichthyotoxicity and Toxin
JoAnn M. Burkholder, Peter D.R. Moeller, Andrew S, Gordon, Alan J. Lewitus, John S. Ramsdell, Howard B. Glasgow, Harold G. Marshall, and Steven L. Morton

Relating Cyanobacterial Abundance to Environmental Parameters in the Lower St. Johns River Estuary
Ryan J. Pigg, David F. Millie, Karen A. Steidinger, and Brian J. Bendis

Composition and Distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia from Guanabara Bay, Brazil: The Role of Salinity Based on Field and Culture Observations
Maria Célia Villac, Maria G. Matos, Viviane S. Santos, Aline W. Rodrigues, and Simone C. Viana

A Comparison of Photosynthetic and Heterotrophic Carbon Acquisition by Aureococcus anophagefferens
Margaret R. Mulholland, George Boneillo, Peter Bernhardt, Esther Cornfeld, A. Michelle Watson, and Elizabeth Minor

Occurrence and Ecology of the Dinoflagellate Karlodinium micrum in Estuaries of North Carolina, USA
Elizabeth E. Fensin

Geographic Trends in Alexandrium Spp. Growth and Toxicity as a Function of Environmental Conditions
Stacey M. Etheridge and Collin S. Roesler

Relationship of Pfiesteria Spp. and Pfiesteria-Like Organisms to Environmental Factors in Tidal Creeks Draining Urbanized Watersheds
Michael A. Mallin, Douglas C. Parsons, Virginia L. Johnson, JoAnn M. Burkholder, Parke A. Rublee, and Scott H. Ensign

Flow Cytometry Techniques to Quantify Prey Species of Pfiesteria-Like Dinoflagellates
Steven R. Kibler and Patricia A. Tester

Chronic Urea Nitrogren Loading: A Correlate of Pfiesteria Spp. in the Chesapeake and Coastal Bays of Maryland, USA
P. M. Glibert, J. Alexander, T. M. Trice, B. Michael, R. E. Mangien, L. Lane, D. Oldach, and H. Bowers

The Production of Hydrogen Peroxide by Heterosigma akashiwo Under Varying N:P Ratios
Ashley R. Skeen, Carmelo R. Tomas, and William J. Cooper

Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Uptake Kinetics in Field Populations Dominated by Karenia brevis
Deborah A. Bronk, Marta P. Sanderson, Margaret R. Mulholland, Cynthia A. Heil, and Judith M. O'Neil

A Massive Bloom of Cochlodinium polykrikoides in the Yatsushiro Sea, Japan, in 2000
Dae-Il Kim, Sou Nagasoe, Yuji Oshima, Yang-Ho Yoon, Nobuyoshi Imada, and Tsuneo Honjo

HAB Distribution and Associations with Environmental Variables-Delaware Estuarine Coastal Bays, USA, 1998-2002Edythe Humphries, H. B. Glasgow, Jr., H. Marshall, A. J. Lewitus, and S. B. Wilde

Dinoflagellate Blooms Related to Coastal Upwelling Plumes Off Portugal
Ana Amorim, Maria Teresa Moita, and Paulo Oliveira

The Relationship of Alexandrium fundyense to the Temporal and Spatial Pattern in Phytoplankton Community Structure Within the Bay of Fundy, Eastern Canada
Fred H. Page, Jennifer L. Martin, Alex Hanke, and Murielle M. LeGresley

Zooplankton Grazing During Alexandrium Blooms in the Gulf of Maine
Jefferson T. Turner and David G. Borkman

Accumulation of PSP Toxins in the Copepod Calanus finmarchicus Feeding on the Toxigenic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Species in Laboratory and Field Studies
Robert G. Campbell, Edward G. Durbin, Gregory J. Teegarden, and Allan D. Cembella

Differences in the PSP Toxin Profiles of Mytilus edulis During Spring and Autumn Blooms of Alexandrium tamarense Off Mar del Plata Coast, Argentina
José I. Carreto, Nora G. Montoya, Rut Akselman, Rubén M. Negri, Mario O. Carignan, and Daniel A. Cucchi Colleoni

Reproductive Success of the Copepod Acartia clausi During a Bloom of Dinophysis Spp.
I. Maneiro, C. Guisande, M. Frangópulos, Y. Pazos, and A. Moroño

Survival and Reproduction of the Copepod Parvocalanus crassirostris Fed the Texas Brown Tide Aureoumbra lagunensis
E. J. Buskey, C. J. Hyatt, and W. Slingerland

View Plenary, Ecology Sessions Document

Toxins and Toxicity Sessions

Azaspiracid Poisoning: Aetiology, Toxin Dynamics and Bioconversion in Shellfish
Kevin J. James, Mónica Diaz Sierra, Mary Lehane, Ana Braña Magdalena, Cian Moroney, and Ambrose Furey

Florida's Red Tide Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis May Modulate Its Potency by Producing a Non-Toxic Competitive Antagonist
A. J. Bourdelais, S. Campbell, J. Benson, W. M. Abraham, J. Naar, J. Kubanek, J. L. C. Wright, H. Jacocks, and D. G. Baden

Detection and Identification of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Florida Pufferfish Responsible for Incidents of Neurologic Illness
Michael Quilliam, Dominik Wechsler, Steven Marcus, Bruce Ruck, Marleen Wekell, and Timothy Hawryluk

Lipophylic Toxins of Different Strains of Ostreopsidaceae and Gonyaulaceae
P. Riobó, B. Paz, M. L. Fernández, S. Fraga, and J. M. Franco

Preparation of In-House Certified Materials (RM) to Be Used as a Tool in Quality Assurance of the Analytical Results in Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Assays
Juan Olmedo, Juana Bustos, Luis González, Joaquín Berenguer, Jesús González, Ma. Carmen Blanco, and Pedro A. Burdaspal

Mass Culture of New Zealand Isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia australis for Production of a New Isomer of Domoic AcidLesley Rhodes, Patrick Holland, Janet Adamson, Andy Selwood, and Paul McNabb

New Advancements in Detection and Structural Elucidation of Marine Biotoxins from Adriatic Mussels
Patrizia Ciminiello, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Ernesto Fattorusso, Martino Forino, and Silvana Magno

Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Anatoxin-A, Homoanatoxin-A and Their Degradation Products
Ambrose Furey, Janet Crowley, Orla Allis, Olav M. Skulberg, and Kevin J. James

Genotoxicity Investigation of Chlorinated Degradation Products of Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin
Xiaoyun Shen, P. K. S. Lam, G. R. Shaw, and W. Wickramasinghe

Laboratory Analyses of Nutrient Stress and Toxin Accumulation in Pseudo-nitzschia Species from Monterey Bay, California
Raphael Kudela, Alice Roberts, and Meredith Armstrong

Pseudo-nitzschia australis, Mytilus edulis, Engraulis anchoita and Domoic Acid in the Argentine Sea
Rubén Negri, Nora G. Montoya, José I. Carreto, Rut Akselman, and Daniela Inza

Study on Domoic Acid in Portuguese King Scallops (Pecten maximus)
Pedro R. Costa, Maria J. Botelho, Susana M. Rodrigues, and M. A. de M. Sampayo

Geographic Strain Variation in Toxin Production in Karlodinium micrum (Dinophyceae) from Southeastern Estuaries of the United States
Jonathan R. Deeds, Steven R. Kibler, Patricia A. Tester, and Allen R. Place

The Production of Brevetoxin and Brevetoxin-Like Compounds During the Growth Phases of Karenia brevis
Susan K. Campbell, Ellen P. McConnell, Andrea J. Bourdelais, Henry M. Jacocks, Carmelo Tomas, and Dan Baden

Transformation and Photodegradation of Domoic Acid in Sea Water
Anna V. Campbell, Kristin L. McKinnon, Robert F. Whitehead, Stephen A. Skrabal, R. Kieber, and Jeffrey L. C. Wright

Brevetoxin Degradation and By-Product Formation via Natural Sunlight
Ron C. Hardman, William J. Cooper, Andrea J. Bourdelais, Piero Gardinali, and Daniel G. Baden

Effects of Temperature on Production of Brevetoxin and Brevetoxin-Like Compounds
Jody N. Lamberto, Andrea J. Bourdelais, Henry M. Jacocks, Carmelo Tomas, and Daniel G. Baden

Synthesis, Binding Assays and Toxicity of New Derivatives of Brevetoxin-B
Sophie Michelliza, Henry Jacocks, Andrea J. Bourdelais, and Daniel G. Baden

Production of Gymnodimine by Karenia selliformis (Haywood et al.)
Lincoln MacKenzie, Veronica Beuzenberg, and Paul McNabb

Preliminary Investigations Into Oxidation of Paralytic Shellfish Poisons (Saxitoxins and Derivatives) in Drinking Water by Chlorine
Wasa A. Wickramasinghe, Brad C. Davis, Geoff K. Eaglesham, Glen R. Shaw, and Michael R. Moore

Persistence of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Freshwater Environments
P. Pereira, E. Dias, and S. Franca

The Effects of Iron Limitation on Growth and PSP Toxin Production in Alexandrium fundyense Elizabeth A. Patchett, Michael F. Satchwell, Jeffrey Alexander, and Gregory L. Boyer

Characterization of Sensitivity to PSP Toxins in North American Populations of the Softshell Clam Mya arenaria
V. Monica Bricelj, Scott P. MacQuarrie, Betty M. Twarog, and Vera L. Trainer

Depuration and Transformation of PSP Toxins in the South African Abalone Haliotis midae
Stacey M. Etheridge, Grant C. Pitcher, and Collin S. Roesler

The Variability of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin Distribution in Cockles(Acanthocardia tuberculatum): Implications For the Evaluation of the Toxicity
Joaquín A. Berenguer, Marta Vigo, Luis González, Juana Bustos, Juan Olmedo, Jesús González, Teresa Legarda, Ma. Carmen Blanco, and Pedro A. Burdaspal

PSP Toxin Accumulation by the Edible Shore Crabs Telmessus acutidens and Charybdis japonica at Onahama, Japan
Hiroshi Oikawa, Tsuneo Fujita, Masataka Satomi, Toshiyuki Suzuki, Yuichi Kotani, and Yutaka Yano

Toxicity of the Aqueous Extract of Alexandrium fraterculus (Balech) Balech
Luis A. O. Proença, Marcio S. Tamanaha, and Charrid Resgalla Jr.

The Characterization of Two New Spirolides Isolated from Danish Strains of the Toxigenic Dinoflagellate Alexandrium ostenfeldii
Shawna L. MacKinnon, Allan D. Cembella, Michael A. Quilliam, Patricia LeBlanc, Nancy I. Lewis, William R. Hardstaff, Ian W. Burton, and John A. Walter

Isolation and Structure Elucidation of New and Unusual Saxitoxin Analogues from Mussels Carmela Dell'Aversano, John A. Walter, Ian W. Burton, David J. Stirling, Ernesto Fattorusso, and Michael A. Quilliam

Isolation of Bioactive Metabolites from a Lyngbya Species Isolated from Periphyton of the Florida Everglades
John P. Berry, Miroslav Gantar, Robert E. Gawley, and Kathleen S. Rein

Hemolytic Toxin of the Dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama as a Possible Causative Factor Responsible for Shellfish Kill
Tatsuya Oda, Yoji Sato, Yosuke Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi Muramatsu, Yukihiko Matsuyama, and Tsuneo Honjo

Evaluation of Toxicity in Nine Raphidophyte Strains Isolated from Different Geographic Regions Cheng Zhang, Howard B. Glasgow, Peter D.R. Moeller, JoAnn M. Burkholder, Alan J. Lewitus, Greg M. Melia, Steven L. Morton, and Elle Hannon Allen

Determination of Known and New Yessotoxins from Adriatic Shellfish by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Patrizia Ciminiello, Carmela Dell'Aversano, Ernesto Fattorusso, Martino Fortino, and Silvana Magno

Detection of Six New Azaspiracids in Shellfish Using Liquid Chromatography with Multiple Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Mónica Diaz Sierra, Ambrose Furey, Mary Lehane, Ana Braña Magdalena, and Kevin J. James

Hemolytic Compounds from Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae)
Meng Fu, Marion van Rijssel, and Gerd Liebezeit

View Toxins and Toxicity Sessions Document

Detection and Analytical Techniques Session

Comparison of Four Assays for the Detection of Microcystins
Michael Satchwell and Gregory Boyer

Certified Reference Materials for Marine Algal Toxins
Krista Thomas, Pearl Blay, Ian W. Burton, Allen D. Cembella, Cheryl Craft, Sheila Crain, William R. Hardstaff, Maurice V. Laycock, Denise LeBlanc, Patricia LeBlanc, Nancy Lewis, Shawna L. MacKinnon, Kelley Reeves, John A. Walter, Anthony J. Windust, and Michael A. Quilliam

Detection of Dinophysis Cell Toxicity by Using Parthenogenetic and Clonal Artemia
Konstantinos Koukaras, Athanasios D. Baxevanis, Chris Vasdekis, Theodore J. Abatzopoulos, and George Nikolaidis

Brevetoxin Metabolism and Elimination in the Eastern Oyster: Implications for Methods Development
Steven M. Plakas, Kathleen R. El Said, Edward L. E. Jester, Zhihong Wang, Paul E. Eilers, Hudson R. Granade, and Robert W. Dickey

Detection of Karenia brevis by a Microtiter Plate Assay
Kelly D. Goodwin, Gloria Scorzetti, Sara A. Cotton, Traci L. Kiesling, Peter B. Ortner, and Jack W. Fell

An Alternative Method for Domoic Acid Determination in Seawater Particulates: A Receptor Binding Assay Using Glutamate Dehydrogenase
Keri A. Baugh, Sylvester Spencer, John C. Wekell, and Vera L. Trainer

Development of Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection of Chattonella Species in Culture and Environmental Samples
Holly Bowers, Torstein Tengs, Sayaka Goto, Carmelo Tomas, Chitari Ono, Sadaaki Yoshimatsu, and David Oldach

Analysis of Cyanobacterial Toxins by Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Carmela Dell'Aversano, Geoffrey K. Eaglesham, and Michael A. Quilliam

HPLC/MS/MS Determination of Nodularin Levels in Fish, Mussels and Prawns During a Bloom of Nodularia spumigena in the Gippsland Lakes, Victoria, Australia
Geoff K. Eaglesham, Brad C. Davis, Paul G. Van Buynder, Suzanne Phillips, and Keith Thomas

Developing an LC/MS Method to Separate the U.S. EPA Priority Listed Algal Toxins
Stuart A. Oehrle and Judy Westrick

Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Yessotoxins in Shellfish
Monica Fernández Amandi, Brett Hamilton, Mary Lehane, Peter Hovgaard, Lincoln MacKenzie, Hanne Ramstad, Ambrose Furey, and Kevin J. James

Ion-Trap and Nanoelectrospray Quadrupole-TOF Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Polyether Marine Toxins in Phytoplankton
Patricia Fernández Puente, Mónica Diaz Sierra, Ambrose Furey, Brett Hamilton, Mary Lehane, and Kevin J. James

Sample Preparation Methods for Analysis of Brevetoxins in Oysters by LC/MS
Zhihong Wang, Kathleen R. El Said, Steven M. Plakas, and Robert Dickey

Confirmation of Azaspiracids, Okadaic Acid and Dinophysistoxins in Phytoplankton Samples from the West Coast of Ireland by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Philipp Hess, David P. Swords, Dave W. Clarke, Joe B. Silke, and Terry McMahon

Characterization of Lectin Binding Profiles for Pfiesteria Spp. and Other Dinoflagellates
Jeffrey J. Springer, Howard B. Glasgow, and JoAnn M. Burkholder

Multiple Tandem Mass Spectrometry Methods for the Determination of Toxic Cyclic Heptapeptides, Microcystins
Ambrose Furey, Paloma Muniz-Ortea, Janet Crowley, Orla Allis, Brett Hamilton, Mónica Diaz Sierra, Mary Lehane, and Kevin J. James

Real-Time RT-PCR Study of Differential Expression of Two Genes in Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech, Cultured Under Varying Nitrate/Phosphate Ratios
Sonsoles Fernández, Natalia Zabalegui, Jesús García-Foncillas, and Rosa Martínez

Using Real-Time PCR to Detect Toxigenic Strains of Microcystis aeruginosa
Carrie Moulton and Michael F. Antolin

Use of Alexandrium rRNA Targeted Probes to Predict PSP Events on Kodiak Island, Alaska
Julie A. Matweyou, Dean A. Stockwell, Christopher A. Scholin, Sherwood Hall, Vera L. Trainer, Jason D. Ray,Terry E. Whitledge, Amy R. Childers, and F. Gerald Plumley

Variation in Reactivity of rRNA-Targeted Probes Towards Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Grown in Nitrate and Silicate-Limited Continuous Cultures Peter E.Miller, Roman Marin III, Chris Scholin, Joel C. Goldman, Greg Doucette, and Christine Powell

DNA Probes for the Detection of Karenia Species in New Zealand's Coastal Waters Lesley Rhodes, Allison Haywood, Janet Adamson, Krystyna Ponikla, and Chris Scholin

Utility of the Algal Photopigment Gyroxanthin-Diester in Studies Pertaining to the Red Tide Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis
G. Hansen & Moestrup Barbara A. Berg, Bradley A. Pederson, Gary J. Kirkpatrick, Christopher J. Higham, and David F. Millie

Vertical Migration of a Karenia brevis Bloom: Implications for Remote Sensing of Harmful Algal Blooms
John Kerfoot, Gary Kirkpatrick, Steve Lohrenz, Kevin Mahoney, Mark Moline, and Oscar Schofield

A Novel Optical Classification Technique for Detection of Red Tides in the Gulf of Mexico
Jennifer P. Cannizzaro, Kendall L. Carder, F. Robert Chen, John J. Walsh, Zhongping Lee, and Cynthia Heil

Detection of Alexandrium fundyense Bloom Initiation and Transport in the Western Gulf of Maine, USA, Using Mussels (Mytilus edulis) on Offshore Hydrographic Moorings
Bruce A. Keafer, James A. Churchill, W. Rockwell Geyer, Richard P. Signell, John W. Hurst Jr., Laurie L. Bean,Neal R. Pettigrew, and Donald M. Anderson

Validation of an LC-MS Method to Detect ASP and DSP Toxins in Shellfish P. McNabb and P. T. Holland

Competitive ELISA: An Accurate, Quick and Effective Tool to Monitor Brevetoxins in Environmental and Biological Samples
Jerome Naar, Allison Weidner, and Daniel G. Baden

NSP (Karenia brevis) Toxins and Metabolites in Oysters, Clams, and Whelks
R. H. Pierce, M. S. Henry, R. Dickey, and S. Plakas

Recent Developments in the Analysis of Algal Toxins
A. Gago-Martínez, J. M. Leão, N. Piñeiro, E. Vaquero, F. Davila, P. de la Iglesia, J. A. Rodríguez Vázquez, and J. F. Lawrence

Multi-Laboratory Study of Five Methods for the Determination of Brevetoxins in Shellfish Tissue Extracts
Robert W. Dickey, Steven M. Plakas, Edward L. E. Jester, Kathleen R. El Said, Jan N. Johannessen, Leanne J. Flewelling, Paula Scott, Dan G. Hammond, Frances M. Van Dolah, Tod A. Leighfield, Marie-Yasmine Bottein Dechraoui, John S. Ramsdell, Richard H. Pierce, Mike S. Henry, Mark A. Poli, Calvin Walker, Jan Kurtz, Jerome Naar, Daniel G. Baden, Steve M. Musser, Kevin D. White, Penolope Truman, Aaron Miller, Timothy P. Hawryluk, Marleen M. Wekell, David Stirling, Michael A. Quilliam, and Jung K. Lee

Application of an Ocean Color Algal Taxa Detection Model to Red Tides in the Southern Benguela Collin S. Roesler, Stacey M. Etheridge, and Grant C. Pitcher

Detection of Pectenotoxin in Norwegian Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis)
Tore Aune, Trine Torgersen, Johanne Arff, and Karl Tangen

Rapid Monitoring of Toxic Phytoplankton and Zooplankton with a Lateral-Flow Immunochromatographic Assay for ASP and PSP Toxins
Cheryl Rafuse, Allen Cembella, Maurice Laycock, and Joanne Jellett

Detection of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum in South Carolina Estuaries Using Real-Time PCR Assay
Jason W. Kempton, Patrick R. Williams, Susan B. Wilde, Jennifer L. Wolny, and Alan J. Lewitus

View Detection and Analytical Techniques Sessions Document

Biogeography and Regional Events Sessions

Pfiesteria Species Identified in Ships' Ballast Water and Residuals: A Possible Vector for Introductions to Coastal Areas
Martina A. Doblin, Lisa A. Drake, Kathryn J. Coyne, Parke A. Rublee, and Fred C. Dobbs

Global Distribution of Toxic Pfiesteria Complex Species Detected by PCR Assay
Parke A. Rublee, Coy Allen, Eric Schaefer, Lesley Rhodes, Janet Adamson, Caroline Lapworth, JoAnn Burkholder, and Howard Glasgow

The Use of Volunteers to Monitor Harmful Phytoplankton
Katherine A. Schaefer, Heather L. Blankenstein, Kimberly J. Nowocin, and Steve L. Morton

Harmful Dinoflagellates in the Gulf Stream and Atlantic Barrier Coral Reef, Belize
Maria A. Faust and Patricia A.Tester

The Geographical Distribution of Alexandrium catenella Is Extending to Italy! First Evidence from the Tyrrhenian Sea
Antonella Luglié, Mariagrazia Giacobbe, Fatima Fiocca, Antonietta Sannio, and Nicola Sechi

Potentially Toxic Thecate Dinoflagellates of Middle Tyrrhenian Coastal Waters (Mediterranean Sea)
Roberta Congestri, Ilen Bianco, and Patrizia Albertano

Potentially Toxic and Harmful Phytoplankton Species Along the Coast of the Turkish Seas
Tufan Koray

Distribution of Prorocentrum lima Epiphytic on Macroalgae in Patagonian Gulfs (Argentina)
Ana Maria Gayoso, Vanesa K. Fulco, and Cecilia I. Muglia

Twenty-Three Years of Red Tide Monitoring at Fixed Stations Along the Coast of Uruguay
Silvia M. Méndez and Dinorah Medina

Dominance and Permanence of Species of Harmful Algae Forming Blooms in Mazatlán Bay, Mexico (1979-2002)

Roberto Cortés Altamirano, Arturo P. Sierra-Beltrán, and Maria del Carmen Cortés Lara
Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Pseudo-nitzschia Spp. in Central California Related to Regional Oceanography
Raphael Kudela, William Cochlan, and Alice Roberts

Prevalence of Raphidophyte Blooms in South Carolina Brackish Ponds Associated with Housing and Golf Courses
Alan J. Lewitus, Kenneth C. Hayes, Jason W. Kempton, Larissa J. Mason, Susan B. Wilde, Barry J. Williams, and Jennifer L. Wolny

Observation of Prorocentrum lima in South Carolina
Katherine A. Schaefer and Steve L. Morton

Prorocentrum lima in New England Coastal Waters: Population Dynamics and Toxicity
Lucie Maranda, Susannah Corwin, Paul E. Hargraves, Laurie L. Bean, Steven Eaker, Tod A. Leighfield, and Steve L. Morton

An Unprecedented Bloom of Dinophysis acuminata in Chesapeake Bay
Peter Tango, Walt Butler, Richard Lacouture, David Goshorn, Robert Magnien, Bruce Michael, Sherwood Hall, Kathy Browhawn, Robert Wittman, and William Beatty

Occurrence of Karlodinium micrum and Its Association with Fish Kills in Maryland Estuaries David Goshorn, Jonathan Deeds, Peter Tango, Charles Poukish, Allen Place, Margaret McGinty, Walter Butler, Christopher Luckett, and Robert Magnien

Extended Bloom Concentration of the Toxic Dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuminata in Virginia Estuaries During Late Winter and Early Spring, 2002
Harold G. Marshall, Todd Egerton, Todd Stem, Jeremy Hicks, and Mikolaj Kokocinski

Volunteer Phytoplankton Monitoring in the Inland Bays of Delaware, USA
Edward B. Whereat, Joseph G. Farrell, and Edythe M. Humphries

Blooms of the Ichthyotoxic Flagellate Prymnesium parvum in U.S. Waters: An Emerging or a Perennial Problem?
Carmelo Tomas, Joan Glass, Jack Ralph, and Alan Lewitus

Pfiesteria Distribution Along the Texas (USA) Coast
Tracy Villareal, James D. Simons, and Parke Rublee

Regional Distribution of the Texas Brown Tide (Aureoumbra lagunensis) in the Gulf of Mexico Tracy A. Villareal, Teresa Chirichella, and Edward J. Buskey

Florida's Blackwater Event
Merrie Beth Neely, Eric Bartels, Jennifer Cannizzaro, Kendall L. Carder, Paula Coble, David English, Cynthia Heil, Chuanmin Hu, John Hunt, Jim Ivey, Gil McRae, Erich Mueller, Ernst Peebles, and Karen Steidinger

Toxic and Harmful Dinoflagellates in the Southern Gulf of Mexico
Sergio Licea, María E. Zamudio, Ruth Luna, Yuri B. Okolodkov, and Samuel Gómez-Aguirre

View Biogeography and Regional Events Sessions Document

Physiology and Life Cycle Sessions

UV-B Inhibition of Pseudo-nitzschia Australis: Primary Production Is Minimized by UV-A Enhancement Effects
Joseph J. Gorga, Claudia Mengelt, and Barbara B. Prézelin

Dark Survival and Subsequent Light Recovery for Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries
Claudia Mengelt and Barbara B. Prézelin

Effects of Light, Temperature and Salinity on the Growth Rate of Alexandrium tamarense from Patagonia (Argentina)
Vanesa K. Fulco and Ana María Gayoso

Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation on the Toxin Composition of the Dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella
Nora G. Montoya, José I. Carreto, Mario O. Carignan, and Hugo R. Benavides

Toxic Phaeocystis globosa Strains from China Grow at Remarkably High Temperatures
Pingping Shen, Marion van Rijssel, Yan Wang, Lu Songhui, Chen Jufang, and Yu-Zao Qi

Continuous-Flow and Batch Cultures of Toxic Alexandrium catenella and A. minutum in Stirred Tank Bioreactors
V. Séchet, J. B. Bérard, M. Bohec, G. Bougaran, C. Carré, P. Masselin, and P. Truquet

Does Urea-Carbon Contribute Significantly to Aureococcus anophagefferens Carbon Nutrition?
Michael W. Lomas

Comparison of Regional Clones of the Genera Chattonella and Fibrocapsa for Growth Characteristics and Potential Toxin Production
Amanda Bridgers, Ellen McConnell, Jerome Naar, Allison Weidner, Lucille Tomas, and Carmelo Tomas

Phylogenetic and Functional Diversity of the Bacteria Associated with Gymnodinium catenatum: Evidence from the SSU rDNA of Cultivable and Non-Cultivable Bacteria
David H. Green, Susan I. Blackburn, Lyndon E. Llewellyn, Andrew P. Negri, and Christopher J. S. Bolch

Photosynthetic Variation Among Eight Different Karenia brevis Clones Blake A. Schaeffer, Daniel Kamykowski, Edward J. Milligan, and Laurie McKay

Photophysiology of the Florida Red Tide Dinoflagellate Karenia brevis: Modifications in Thylakoid Lipid Composition in Response to Environmental Conditions
Terence J. Evens and Jeffrey D. Leblond

Photopigment Content of Three Karenia brevis Clones in Response to Varying Light Levels Christopher J. Higham, Gary J. Kirkpatrick, Bradley A. Pederson, and Barbara A. Berg

A Cell Cycle Synchronization and Purification Technique for Heterotrophic Pfiesteria and Cryptoperidiniopsoid Dinoflagellates Analyzed by Flow Cytometry
Matthew W. Parrow, Nora J. Deamer, Jessica L. Alexander, and JoAnn M. Burkholder

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Systematics Sessions

Chattonella verruculosa and Related Species from Japan, Europe (North Sea) and U.S. Coastal Waters: Cases of Mistaken Identity?
Carmelo R. Tomas, Chitari Ono, Sadaaki Yoshimatsu, and Jeanette Göbel

Dinoflagellates Come from Outer Space but Haptophytes and Diatoms Do Not Uwe John, Thomas Mock, Klaus Valentin, Allan D. Cembella, and Linda K. Medlin

Population Diversity of Ostreopsidaceae in the Mediterranean Sea: A Preliminary Study on the Genetics and Morphology
Antonella Penna, Magda Vila, Maria Grazia Giacobbe, Elena Bertozzini, Francesca Andreoni, Santiago Fraga, Esther Garcés, Mercedes Masó, and Mauro Magnani

Species of Pseudo-nitzschia in the Drake Passage (54°-61°S to 46°-64°W)
Martha Ferrario, Sergio Licea, C. F. Balestrini, and Gustavo Ferreyra

Genetic Variability and Toxin Profile of Alexandrium tamarense (Lebour) Balech from Southern Brazil
Graziela R. Persich, David M. Kulis, Emily L. Lilly, Donald M. Anderson, and Virgínia M.T. Garcia

Formation of Dinophysis dens Pavillard and D. diegensis Kofoid from Laboratory Incubations of Dinophysis acuta Ehrenberg and D. caudata Saville-Kent
Beatriz Reguera, Sonsoles González-Gil, and Maximino Delgado

Taxonomic Reevaluation of a South Carolina "Red Tide" Dinoflagellate Indicates Placement in the Genus Kryptoperidinium
Jennifer L. Wolny, Jason W. Kempton, and Alan J. Lewitus

Linking Population and Physiological Diversity in Karenia brevis from the Texas Coast L. Campbell, J. M. Ivy, P. Loret, T. A. Villareal, Kelly Soltysiak, and J. R. Gold

Differentiating Two Florida Harmful Algal Bloom Species Using HPLC Pigment Characterization
Bradley A. Pederson, Gary J. Kirkpatrick, Allison J. Haywood, Barbara A. Berg, and Christopher J. Higham

Molecular Analysis of Pfiesteria piscicida Life Cycle Stages Using Nuclear Staining Techniques and Whole Cell in Situ Hybridization with Peptide Nucleic Acid Probes
Mark W. Vandersea, R. Wayne Litaker, Steven R. Kibler, and Patricia A. Tester

Morphology of Fibrocapsa japonica Cysts Formed Under Laboratory Conditions
M. Karin de Boer, Marion van Rijssel, and Engel G. Vrieling

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Harmful Effects and Risks Sessions

A Review of Feeding Preference and Deterrence in Three Faunal Species Associated with Cyanobacterial Blooms of Lyngbya majuscula in Southeast Queensland, Australia
A. Capper, I. R. Tibbetts, J. M. O'Neil, and G. R. Shaw

Comparative Toxicity of the Cyanobacterial Toxin Cylindrospermopsin Between Mice and Cattle: Human Implications
Glen R. Shaw, Ross A. McKenzie, Wasa A. Wickramasinghe, Alan A. Seawright, Geoff K. Eaglesham, and Michael R. Moore

Design and Use of a Harmful Algal Bloom Database for the West Coast of North America Nicolaus G. Adams, Michelle C. Tomlinson, and Vera L. Trainer
Cyanobacteria Exposure, Drinking Water and Colorectal Cancer
Lora E. Fleming, Carlos Rivero, John W. Burns Jr., Chris Williams, Judy A. Bean, and Wendy B. Stephan

Acute Effects of Recreational Exposure to Freshwater Cyanobacteria-A Prospective Epidemiology Study
Ian Stewart, Penelope M. Webb, Philip J. Schluter, Lora E. Fleming, John W. Burns Jr., Miro Gantar, Lorraine C. Backer, and Glen R. Shaw

Harmful Cyanobacteria-Invertebrate Relations: Histopathological Picture in Fall Webworm
Evgeny B. Gol'din

Effect of the Potentially Toxic Cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena on the Survival and Reproductive Success of the Dominant Baltic Copepod Species
M. Balode and S. Strake

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Outbreaks in Costa Rica
Maribelle Vargas-Montero and Enrique Freer

Variability of Brevetoxin Accumulation Levels Within Individual Shellfish During Karenia brevis Blooms
Allison L. Weidner, Jerome Naar, Karen Steidinger, Richard Pierce, Mike Henry, Leanne Flewelling, and Daniel G. Baden

Brevetoxin Depuration in Shellfish Via Production of Non-Toxic Metabolites: Consequences for Seafood Safety and the Environmental Fate of Biotoxins
J. Naar, J. Kubanek, A. Weidner, L. Flewelling, A. Bourdelais, K. Steidinger, and D. G. Baden

Florida Red Tides, Manatee Brevetoxicosis, and Lung Models
Barbara Kirkpatrick, Deborah E. Colbert, Dana Dalpra, Elizabeth A. C. Newton, Joseph Gaspard, Brandi Littlefield, and Charles Manire

The Use of Electronic Media to Educate and Communicate with the Public During a Harmful Algal Bloom
Barbara A. Kirkpatrick, Lora E. Fleming, Michael S. Henry, Richard D. Clark, and Lorraine C. Backer

Effects of Novel Antagonists of Polyether Brevetoxin (PbTx)-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Allergic Sheep
William M. Abraham, Ashfaq Ahmed, Andrea J. Bourdelais, and Daniel G. Baden

Characterization of Red Tide Aerosol on the Texas Coast
Yung Sung Cheng, Tracy A. Villareal, Yue Zhou, Jun Gao, Richard Pierce, Jerome Naar, and Daniel G. Baden

Florida Red Tide: Inhalation Toxicity of Karenia brevis Extract in Rats
J. M. Benson, F. F. Hahn, B. M. Tibbetts, L. E. Bowen, T. H. March, R. J. Langley, T. F. Murray, A. J. Bourdelais, J. Naar, J. Zaias, and D. G. Baden

Philosophical Insights from an Analysis of Media Coverage of the Pfiesteria Controversy Ruben Rabinsky and Lora E. Fleming

An Epidemiologic Approach to the Study of Aerosolized Florida Red Tides
Lora E. Fleming, Lorraine C. Backer, Barbara Kirkpatrick, Richard Clark, Dana Dalpra, David R. Johnson, Judy A. Bean,Yung Sung Cheng, Janet Benson, Dominick Squicciarini, William M. Abraham, Richard Pierce, Julia Zaias, Jerome Naar,Richard Weisman, Greg Bossart, Susan Campbell, Adam Wanner, Mark Harrington, Gayle Van De Bogart, and Daniel G. Baden

Monitoring Approaches for Improved Prediction of Domoic Acid Poisoning Events in Washington State Vera L. Trainer and Orhab Collaborators

Ceratium furca: One Possible Cause of Mass Mortality of Cultured Blue Fin Tuna at Baja California, Mexico
E. Orellana-Cepeda, C. Granados-Machuca, and J. Serrano-Esquer

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Mitigation and Modeling Sessions

Coupled Biophysical Models of Florida Red Tides
John J. Walsh, Dwight A. Dieterle, Brian P. Darrow, Scott P. Milroy, Jason K. Jolliff, Jason M. Lenes, Robert H. Weisberg, and Ruoying He

Effects of Phosphatic Clay Dispersal at Two Divergent Sites in Puget Sound, Washington
J. E. Jack Rensel and Donald M. Anderson

Removal of Harmful Red Tide Plankton by Ozone Treatment
Tsuneo Honjo, Nobuyoshi Imada, Yasuhiro Anraku, Dae-Il Kim, Mikiko Muramatsu, and Yuji Oshima

Pfiesteria piscicida Population Dynamics: A Modeling Study
Xinsheng Zhang, Raleigh R. Hood, Michael R. Roman, Patricia M. Glibert, and Diane K. Stoecker

Forecasting Red Tides Caused by Pseudo-nitzschia Spp. Using an Artificial Intelligence Model
J. M. Corchado, J. M. Torres, and M. M. Sacau Cuadrado

Preliminary Modeling of Cross-Shelf Transport in Support of Monitoring and Forecasting of Harmful Algal Blooms Along the West Florida Coast
Le Ly, Frank Aikman III, Richard Stumpf, and Thomas Gross

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