Burmese or Indian Python (Python molurus)
The Burmese python is one of the largest snakes in the world. Adult Burmese pythons caught in Florida average between 1.8 m (6 ft) and 2.7 m (9 ft); the largest Burmese captured in Florida measured over 5 m (17 ft) in length.
Typical Burmese pythons are tan in color with dark blotches along the back and sides. The blotches look like puzzle pieces, and also resemble the markings on a giraffe. They have a pyramid-shaped head with a dark, arrowhead-shaped wedge extending toward the nose.
Burmese pythons are semi-aquatic and are often found near or in water. They are also excellent climbers and can be seen in trees.
Often cited as having a docile nature, Burmese pythons are popular in the pet trade. However, they are currently listed as a conditional species in Florida and can no longer be acquired as pets in the state. They are also federally listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as an Injurious Species under the Lacey Act which prevents the importation of pythons into the United States.
In Florida, Burmese pythons have been found to prey upon a variety of mammals, birds, and even alligators.
India, lower China, the Malay Peninsula, and some islands of the East Indies.
A population of Burmese pythons is established in south Florida, mainly within the Florida Everglades. Individuals have been found near Naples, suggesting that the population may be moving northwest. Python observations outside of south Florida are escaped or released pets.
Because of its large size, adult Burmese pythons have few predators, with alligators and humans being the exceptions. They prey upon native species and may reduce their populations locally. Research is underway to ascertain the impacts pythons have on native mammal species. While pythons will eat common native species and exotic species such as Norway rats, they can also consume threatened or endangered native species. One python that was caught on Key Largo ate an endangered Key Largo wood rat.
Burmese pythons can pose a threat to human safety. Pythons may also prey upon pets such as cats and dogs.
There is potential for the population to spread west towards Naples. More research is required to determine how far pythons can survive outside of south Florida.
Burmese pythons are a conditional species in Florida (68-5.002, Florida Administrative Code).
Burmese pythons have been reported from the saline glades and mangroves at the south end of Everglades National Park since the 1980s. The actual mechanism of introduction is not known, however it is likely that Burmese pythons escaped from a breeding facility that was destroyed during Hurricane Andrew. It is also likely that pet pythons have been released in and around the Everglades.