Goliath Grouper: Epinephelus itajara


  • Head and fins have tiny dark spots
  • Irregular dark bars on the sides
  • Eyes are small and set forward
  • Caudal and pectoral fins are rounded
  • First dorsal fin is much shorter than the second dorsal fin
  • Dorsal spines low; all nearly the same height

Similar Species: Warsaw grouper, H. nigritus (dorsal spines at varying heights)

Size: Up to 8 feet and 800 pounds; largest grouper species in western Atlantic waters


Coastal and nearshore waters over structure or muddy bottoms. Young often occur in estuaries, especially around oyster bars. More abundant in southern Florida than in northern waters.


Spawn during summer months and have a lifespan of 30 to 50 years.

Opportunistic predators and feed mostly on slow-moving, bottom-associated species. Calico crabs make up the majority of their diet, with other invertebrate species and fish filling in the rest. Will occasionally feed on fish that are struggling on a fishing line, but they have not been shown to actively hunt down fast, free swimming fish such as snappers and groupers. Prey is ambushed, caught by a rapid expansion and opening of the mouth that allows prey to be sucked in and swallowed whole.

Additional Information

State Record:External Website 680 lb, caught near Fernandina Beach (1961)

Recreational Regulations

Image Credit: © Diane Rome Peebles

FWC Facts:
Signs on the Suwannee River warn of jumping Gulf sturgeon which, at up to 8 feet and 200 pounds, have been known to injure boaters.

Learn More at AskFWC