Nonnatives - Hill Myna

Hill Myna - Gracula religiosa


Florida's Nonnative Wildlife. Species detail.

First year: 1950's

Extirpated year:

Established status: Species are present and breeding but for less than 10 years.

Estimated Florida range: 3 counties  At least 10 years, 1 county  Less than 10 years, 7 counties  Not reported breeding

Statewide trend: Declining

Threats to natives: May compete with native species for old woodpecker cavities. It may eat lizards (Long 1981).

Species Account: This species is closely related to the European Starling and is native to southeastern Asia, where it occurs in dense jungles (Bates and Busenbark 1970). In Florida, Hill Mynas are found in suburban areas, where they frequent ornamental plantings and often nest in old woodpecker cavities in palm trees (Florida BBA). This omnivorous species eats fruits, berries, seeds, insects, and lizards (Long 1981). As of 1991, Hill Mynas were becoming scarce in much of the southeastern coastal range and were found almost solely in Dade and Monroe counties (Robertson and Woolfenden 1992).

Habitats: Central or core urban area, Low density suburban development, areas peripheral to core urban areas, and small towns.

County First Year Extirpated Year Breeding status Notes
Brevard     At least 10 years No recent reports.
Broward     Not reported breeding  
Collier 1995   Not reported breeding 2 reported (Pranty 1995a); probable breeding reported (Florida BBA 1986-91).
Dade 1970's   At least 10 years (Owre 1973, Florida BBA 1986-91)
Highlands 1982   Not reported breeding  
Lee 1991   Less than 10 years  
Martin 1996   Not reported breeding (Pranty 1996c_
Monroe     At least 10 years  
Nassau 1980's   Not reported breeding Possible breeding reported (Florida BBA 1986-91).
Palm Beach 1970's   Not reported breeding (Owre 1973); probable breeding reported (Florida BBA 1986-91).
Polk     Not reported breeding  


Bates, H., and R. Busenbark. 1970. Finches and soft-billed birds. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.

Long, J.L. 1981. Introduced Birds of the world. A.H.& A.R. Reed, Ltd. Sydney Australia

Owre, O. T. 1973. A consideration of the exotic avifauna of southeastern Florida. Wilson Bulletin 85:495.

Pranty, B. 1995b. Field observations [spring report: March to May 1995]. Florida Field Naturalist 23:99-108.

Pranty, B. 1996c. Field observations [summer report: June to July 1996]. Florida Field Naturalist 25:26-31.

Pranty, B. 1996e. Field observations [summer report: June-July1995]. Florida Field Naturalist 24:18-24.

Robertson, W. B., and G. E. Woolfenden. 1992. Florida bird species: an annotated list. Florida Ornithological Society, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994. The birdlife of Florida. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

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